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Gary Greenberg is available for media interviews, debates and lectures. Contact for bookings.

"Mr. Greenberg seems to delight in a game of scholarly "gotcha'" - NY Times
Gary Greenberg's Books in Print
Who Wrote the Gospels book cover 101 Myths book cover Moses Mystery book cover judas brief cover  King David book cover Manetho book cover

Who Wrote the Gospels?

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101 Myths of the Bible

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The Moses Mystery

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The Judas Brief

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King David Versus Israel

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Manetho: Chronology

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My Most Recent Title

Proving Jesus' Authority in Mark And John:
Overlooked evidence of a synoptic relationship

Proving Jesus' Authority



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Proving Jesus' Authority in Mark and John: Overlooked Evidence of a Synoptic Relationship  


In this innovative study of the Fourth Gospel, Greenberg introduces important new perspectives on synoptic problems and challenges many theories about the nature of John’s sources and composition practices. His analysis shows that the author of John knew a written version of Mark’s gospel, had strong theological objections to how Mark depicted the nature and story of Jesus and the gospel message, and composed his gospel as a theologically corrected rewrite of Mark, using the latter’s gospel as a narrative guideline for his own composition.

By focusing on several seemingly different stories in Mark and John that deal with issues relating to how Jesus proved his authority, Greenberg places each of the incidents in their narrative, sequential, and theological context, demonstrating that John knew Mark’s specific stories in the same sequential order that appeared in Mark, and that John’s stories represented theologically altered rewrites of the ones in Mark. The study examines the nature of John’s objections to Mark, what changes John would want to make to Mark, and the formulaic editorial techniques John used to transform Mark’s gospel into John’s gospel. Of particular interest, Greenberg shows how John transformed Mark’s stories about proof through exorcisms into Johannine stories about proof through words.

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Greenberg offers a fresh and compelling study on the literary relationship between the Gospels of Mark and John. The study offers striking parallels between these two Gospels as well as a comprehensive and compelling explanatory theory for them. While no doubt some of these parallels have been addressed by others who have plowed the same ground, the study offers numerous parallels that have not yet been given proper consideration.  This careful and erudite comparison of Mark and John should be read by any engaged in the field of comparative gospel studies. 
Adam Winn, Assistant Professor of Christian Studies, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

 If John's author knew the Gospel of Mark, why is it so different? After all, many of the differences between "the Bi-Optic Gospels" are not simply theological; they are chronological, topographical, and perspectival. In an engaging new approach to these issues, Gary Greenberg explores ways that the Gospel of John may actually represent an augmentation of Mark, with a bit of corrective engagement along the way. And if so, such a thesis has profound implications for understanding more clearly the Jesus of history, not simply the Christ of faith.
Paul N. Anderson, Professor of Biblical and Quaker Studies at George Fox University and author of "The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel"

Gary Greenberg is a superb intellectual detective, following up on tantalizing clues in ancient texts to uncover sources and insights that others have missed. In this latest work, he traces similarities between the Gospel of John and the earlier Gospel of Mark. In so doing, he makes a remarkable discovery about the relationship between these two texts. Carefully crafted, well written, based on historical and literary analysis, Greenberg’s book enhances our understanding not only of the Gospels of John and Mark but the process whereby the gospels themselves came to be.
Barrie Wilson, Professor Emeritus and Senior Scholar, Religious Studies, York University, Toronto. Author, How Jesus Became Christian; co-author, The Lost Gospel.

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Books and Articles by Gary Greenberg

 Books by Gary Greenberg

Who Wrote the Gospels? Why New Testament Scholars Challenge Church Traditions

101 Myths of the Bible: How Ancient Scribes Invented Biblical History

The Moses Mystery: The Egyptian Origins of the Jewish People

The Judas Brief: Who Really Killed Jesus?

King David Versus Israel: How a Hebrew Tyrant Hated by the Israelites Became a Biblical Hero

Manetho: A Study In Egyptian Chronology: How Ancient Scribes Garbled an Accurate Chronology of Dynastic Egypt

Multi-author Books

Everything You Know About God is Wrong (Russ Kick, Editor, Includes articles by Greenberg, Richard Dawkins, Paul Krassner, et al.)

Articles on Biblical Issues

Roman Days, Jewish Nights, and the Gospel Calendar Problems, posted on the Bible and Interpretation site on 7/12/2018.

Horus, Seth, and Israel: Egyptian Literary Reflections in a Biblical Mirror (posted 2/4/18)

John 11:45-54: The Key to John's Chronological and Narrative Structure (posted 2/4/18)

Jesus Before Pilate: What's Wrong With This Picture?
(on Bible and Interpretation Web Site)

Did Pre-Gospel Christians Believe Judas Betrayed Jesus? (On Bible and Interpretation Web Site.)

Pilate's Extended Dialogues in the Gospel of John: Did the Evangelist alter a lost written source? (Written for this site.)

Osarseph and Exodus: Literary Reflections in an Egyptian Mirror (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Biblical Literature, in Lausanne Switzerland, 1997.)

The Generations of Heaven and Earth: Egyptian Deities in the Garden of Eden (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt in St. Louis, 1996.)

Neith and the Two Biblical Deborahs: One and the Same
(Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt in Atlanta, 1995.)

Dating the Exodus: Another View
(KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Summer 1994.)

Essay on Recommended Reading (from 101 Myths of the Bible.)

Articles on Manetho and Egyptian Chronology

The following materials on Manetho and Egyptian chronology are based on my earlier research into Egyptian chronology. I have since updated, corrected, revised, and expanded the material for inclusion in my book Manetho: A Study in Egyptian Chronology.". Although my general views and conclusions remain essentially the same, conclusions drawn in my book supersede the materials set forth below.

 Manetho's Twelfth Dynasty and the Standard Chronology
(Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, #29 (2002, published in 2004))

Manetho's Seventh and Eighth Dynasties: A Puzzle Solved
(Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities #25 (1995, published in 1998))

Manetho's Eighteenth Dynasty: Putting the Pieces Back Together
(Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt at Chicago, 1999.)

Manetho Rehabilitated: A New Analysis of his Second Intermediate Period
(Discussions in Egyptology #25, published 1993)

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As of July 1, 2018 all news and updates about Gary Greenberg will appear on his blog site at

My primary (but not exclusive) focus on this blog will be to explore problem areas in biblical studies, both Jewish and Christian, that either remain unresolved in academic circles or that I believe need to be reconsidered from a new perspective. My main areas of concern are source criticism, outside influences, historical credibility of scriptures, and chronological issues.

Hope you'll check it out and spread the word.

What Others Say

About 101 Myths of the Bible

Today’s Librarian
The topic may be controversial but the content is fascinating and thought provoking. . . . This riveting and intelligent study has relevance to a wide audience of biblical scholars."

Florence, SC News
It’s a riveting read that’s definitely not for the biblically faint of heart."

"This book will probably either strengthen your faith or cast it into doubt. Just remember, there’s a reason it’s called faith. At any rate, it will make for lively dinner table discussions."

About The Moses Mystery

The Tennessee Tribune
"A must read for those interested in biblical scholarship."

 St. Louis Post-Dispatch
"An ingenious comparison of Biblical and Egyptian history."

Denver Post
"Guaranteed to raise hackles and lively debate . . . Sure to provoke challenge."

KMT Magazine
Insightful and valuable."

MultiCultural Review
"This is an intriguing and controversial book, bound to add fuel to the still smoldering debate between Afrocentrists and classicists over Africa's role in the evolution of Western culture and civilization. "

About KIng David Versus Israel

Prof. David Noel Freedman, Editor of the Anchor Bible Project - "I heartily recommend this substantial volume . . . Greenberg's book is a worthy addition to the library of first-rate and challenging books on David. "

Green Bay Press-Gazette
"Gary Greenberg will make you think. He might even make you angry."

Library Journal
"Greenberg is able to separate much historical fact from biblical fiction."

About The Judas Brief

Catholic Biblical Quarterly - "a keen eye for the ways religious and political motives have shaped the story of Jesus' arrest and execution."

 Prof. April deConick, Rice University - "The book is very accessible in terms of the manner in which it reads and is well-argued, reflecting a revisionary examination of the ancient literature. It deals head-on with many of the problems that have troubled scholars for years, including the difficult and inconsistent stories of Judas Iscariot, the involvement of Jewish authorities in Jesus' death, and the increasing tendency of the gospel authors to find ways to exonerate Pilate."

LJXpress (Library Journal's On-line review.)
"vigorous defense of the Palestinian Jews of Jesus' time . . . This well-documented work . . .  presents some interesting history and is clearly written."

About Manetho: A Study in Egyptian Chronology

Dr. Aidan Dodson, Visiting Fellow in Dept. of Archaeology, University of Bristol - "An intriguing approach to a long-debated problem."

Frank Joseph Yurco, Egyptologist - "An excellent and well-written analysis that makes a valuable contribution to the study of Egyptian chronology and king-lists. "

Midwest Book Review
"Informatively written by ancient history, mythology, and Biblical studies expert Gary Greenberg, Manetho: A Study In Egyptian Chronology explores how ancient scribes may have misinterpreted the chronology of Egyptian history, and offers a carefully researched survey of the landmark events of Egyptian history."

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